Trade Briefings

October 21, 2021

Changing Competences

The European Union often concludes international trade agreements, which contain shared competences with the Member States (the so-called mixed competences agreements), thus they require ratification from the national and/or regional parliaments in order to be enforced.
August 21, 2019

Two Cheers for the EU-mercosur Agreement

The new EU-Mercosur Agreement only superficially rejects protectionism. As much as it liberalises trade, it also protects European defensive interests and extends the EU’s regulatory influence, to the detriment of Mercosur producers and European consumers.
November 24, 2018

The Economic Damage Inflicted by Production Taxes

Production taxes in France have long been a contentious issue closely linked to employment and wage growth. France currently sets one of the highest levels of production taxes in the EU, which can be seen as an example of the government’s habitual over-taxation.